メタル・カテゴリー閉じる

新着情報  - News -

2021/03/05   神戸製鋼所:経営体...
2021/03/05   愛知製鋼「トラック...
2021/03/05   東京製鐵、田原工場...
2021/03/05   東京製鐵、環境省公...
2021/03/05   丸紅、次世代蓄電技...
2021/03/05   日鉄ステンレス、最...
2021/03/05   青山集団はニッケル...
2021/03/05   三菱マテリアル、P...
2021/03/05   《Metal Pr...
2021/03/05   《Metal Pr...
2021/03/05   《Metal Pr...
2021/03/05   《Metal Pr...
2021/03/05   神戸製鋼所:汎用圧...
2021/03/05   神戸製鋼所:三浦工...
2021/03/05   日本製鉄:日本製鉄...
2021/03/05   日立造船の突破力を...
2021/03/05   街で見かけないHO...
2021/03/05   精製鉛輸出入Rep...
2021/03/05   金余りに歯止めをか...
2021/03/05   2020年の中国ア...

ISLC Report 6, India’s Lead Recycling—A New Arising Problem and An Opportunity

2019.09.18 10:34

ISLC Report 6  updates the latest trends in nonferrous metals industry in India. The growing recycling of lead batteries every year increases lead consumption as a consequence. Mr. L. Pugazhenthy, Executive Director of ILZDA(India Lead Zinc Development Association), made his presentation on this subject in the conference session.

 

photo

Mr. Lakshmanan Pugazhenthy, who is widely known as “Pug” is also The Past President of The Indian Institute of Metals. A metallurgist by profession he has four decades of unique experience in nonferrous metals industry, and  he has received many national awards and distinctions. Mr. Pug was a recipient of the International Lead Award in 2009 at Macau, China. ABC recognizes outstanding professionals who have made significant contributions in field of lead  & lead batteries.

 

Mr. Pugazhenthy  says  that India has a long history of lead recycling. He remarks:  “Lead is the most popular recycled product. It is an ideal example for circular economy and sustainable development in the recycling eco system. During the 60s and '70s, India had fully depended on imported  lead and zinc metals. It is therefore not surprising that our country began recycling of used lead acid batteries(ULAB) during the last few decades.”

 

Fifty years ago, only  very few cars were produced in India. Some regions in the country had severe power shortages or failures during the sweltering summer season. Therefore lead battery inverters became very popular among  the households and offices. Such used lead batteries become a vital input for the recycling industry.

 

During the 90s, the computer and IT sectors made a beginning in India. They also  increased the consumption of lead batteries as UPS, which triggered a significant availability of ULABs for the recycling sector.

 

In 2001, Government of India introduced the concept of  EPR (Extended Producer Responsibility) concept  for  collection of B2B  ULABs. Indian Government also regulated the ULAB auctions so that only eco-friendly recycling units are allowed to purchase and recycle them. All the stakeholders in the lead battery industry namely battery makers, battery dealers, importers, bulk as well as individual consumers  and ULAB recycling units became  a part of this EPR regulation. All those   manufacturers, importers and dealers must  regularly submit their  collection returns to the State  Pollution Control  Boards who send the data to the Central Pollution Control Board at Delhi.

 

Such regulations gradually replaced those old, small types of blast furnaces and polluted units into more clean, eco-friendly units using rotary furnace with closed atmosphere and better waste management system. The implementation of occupational health care precautions in lead production have drastically changed the working atmosphere in the  new generation lead recycling units.

 

The rapid growth of e-rickshaws, e-bikes etc. will also increase the  availability of ULABs. Likewise, the emerging  renewable energy sector such as solar power and wind energy will also add to increased availability of ULABs. India’s ULAB recycling sector has been witnessing regular growth during the last few years. Eco-friendly, better efficiency, and clean operations will become the order of the day.

 

 

chart

 

 

During the mid 60s, the lead recycling business began its operations in a small way in India. We could see only very few lead recycling units at that time; they commenced operations mainly in Kolkata, in East India. Some more big players began manufacturing lead batteries in Chennai and Mumbai regions during the 70s. 

 

Gravita India which has the best secondary lead smelter came up in the 90’s. The company has successfully expanded its lead battery recycling activity to other parts of India as well as overseas. Presently, India has almost 600 authorised secondary lead smelters. On the other hand, there may still be a similar number of informal recycling units. Such a situation clearly indicates as to how much the lead recycling business is attractive in India. The lead batteries becomescrap within two to three years of cycle and the recycled lead goes to battery manufacturers, again and again. India’s secondary lead production should be about 850000 tons. Hindustan Zinc Limited (HZL) supplies primary lead by producing 200000 tons per year. India imported 150000 tons of lead, lead alloys etc. in recent years. These numbers are only indicative.

 

Indian lead battery market  is about Rs.350 Billion. Sales of `industrial batteries are also increasing in telecom, communications, UPS, power plants, railways, and renewable energy. The OEM  supply  of new batteries goes for new cars, two wheelers, tractors, buses etc.

 

 

chart

 

 

India had once been like dumping ground for used lead batteries(ULAB). During the middle of the 90s, the Indian Supreme Court banned  the import  of ULABs on the ground that they are hazardous.  ILZDA organized an International Conference in Delhi in 1998; the conference deliberations resulted in the streamlining of the Indian lead recycling sector.  

 

  

India’s Booming Automobile Industries

India produced a total of 4 million automobile vehicles in 2018 and it was the 4th largest car market in the world. In 2020, India  became  the 3rd largest market.

 

 

chart

 

 

However, car sales in India have declined in 2019. Mr. Pug remarks that the auto emissions have become a major concern and India is working towards BHARAT 6 / EURO 6 norms. Since 2017, the law on auto gas emissions gradually became more stringent, and the Indian government targets a 30%  reduction in emissions  and US $  60 billion reduction  in crude oil imports. To realize this target the Govt. has recommended shifting to the electric vehicles(EV) gradually.

 

Indian government set its official goal of selling 6 to 7 million electric vehicles(EV) by 2020. India’s Space Research Organization supplies the latest technology  for  Lithium-ion Batteries(LIB). The country  is pushing forward the  growth of both LIBs and EVs. Many lead battery  manufacturers are also working on lithium-ion batteries, but there is no single  producer  now.  Probably they will be coming up within the next four to five  years. Mr. Pug tells us that ultimately it depends on the consumers whether they would buy LIBs or LABs.

 

As a policy for India, the government has set the goal of selling more electric vehicles, they may witness a poor sales of gasoline cars in the coming years. However Indian government has highlighted the necessity of selling all types of vehicles, both electric vehicles and gasoline cars.

  

 

Solar power for charging EV becomes popular

In the Indian market, renewable energy is becoming popular, with setting up of new solar power plants, the basic infrastructure for charging for electric vehicles. The solar parks are coming up around the country. About 100 cities are setting up solar panels, parks etc., including major airports, seaports etc.

 

At present, the electricity supply from renewable energy accounts for one-fifth of total energy consumption. They are solar power,   wind energy,  hydro as well as biomass units. The government wants to  increase the share of renewable energy to 40% of total consumption by 2025. Energy storage potential in India is  300 GW during  2019 to 2025. Mr. Pug says that lead battery is the basic necessity for storing the  renewable energy.

 

 

chart

 

 

In future, the demand for lead batteries for storage of renewable energy will be very high.

 

To add one thing more, the Indian government will encourage manufacturers to activate an appropriate supply chain network.  At the same time manufacturers of  lead batteries and secondary lead producers, dealers etc. will be asked to submit their regular returns to the Central  and State Pollution Control Boards. These steps will enable a highly transparent  system. Many unregistered private units operate in India. Hence the necessity  for strict implementation of environmental rules and norms.  Mr. Pug says that India should follow the same strict Implementation of environmental laws as in China.

  

After the conference session, we interviewed Mr. Pug.

 

— Is LIB boom coming in the Indian market?

Not now. May be in the next 5 or 6 years. At present there is no LIB producer  in India. We are importing LIBs from China currently.  

 

— What is India’s challenge for the future?

Informal lead recycling should go. We should ensure that India has clean, eco-friendly units in lead recycling. No other alternative.

 

— Give us your last massage, please.

ILZDA will be holding an International Conference on Lead & Lead batteries in Mumbai  during 2nd &  3rd  December ’19. We invite you to join our conference. Most Welcome”

 

 

(IRUNIVERSE YT&YO)

 

 

関連記事